Eid mubarak: Eid på en fredag?

Asslamo Allaikom. Eid mubarak til alle sammen 🙂

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Hvis det er noe som lurer på om man skal be jumah (fredagsbønn) på samme dag som Eid (uttales: id, muslimsk feiring). I følge Hanafi, Shafi og Maliki lovskole er jumah fardh (obligatorisk) selv om Eid er på en fredag. Hanbali lovskolen mener at fredagsbønn ikke er fardh hvis Eid kommer på en fredag.

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EID ON A FRIDAY!

Abu Ubaid states: «Thereafter, I witnessed Eid with Uthman bin Affaan (Radhiallahu Anhu). He arrived then lead the prayers. Thereafter, he turned (to face the congregation) and rendered the sermon. He (Sayyiduna Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu) said: «Indeed two Eids have coincided for you today. Thus, whoever from the (Ahlul ‘Aaliyah) – villagers wish to wait for the Jumuah (prayers) should wait and whoever wish to return then I have indeed permitted him».» [Muwatta Maalik Vol. 1 Pg. 179]

Note: A similar narration has also been narrated by Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu – Marfoo’an. The above narration is also recorded by Abu Dawood Pg. 153 and Ibn Majah Pg. 93. [Ibid]

The action of Sayyiduna Uthman bin Affaan Radhiallahu Anhu clarifies the Hadeeth of Rasoolullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam where Rasoolullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam permitted those who wish to leave immediately after Eid Salaah. This statement of Sayyiduan Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu was directed in a gathering wherein the Sahaabah Radhiallahu Anhum’s presence was extensive and yet no record is found that anyone of them opposed or contested him. It was a statement that was thus unanimously accepted by all of those that were present.

Further, the following juristic texts also sheds more light on the issue.

Allamah Ebrahim Halabi (d. 956 AH) Rahimahullah states: «Salaatul Jumu’ah is Fardh ‘Ain upon every such person within whom the conditions of its Wujoob (incumbency) are perfectly found. The Qur’aan indicates to its Fardhiyyat (compulsion) فاسعوا إلى ذكر الله و ذروا البيع – «Hasten to the remembrance of Allah and discard sale». Rasoolullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam stated: «Indeed I have intended to order a man that reads his Salaah with congregation to thereafter burn the homes of those men that stay away from the (performance of) Jumu’ah Salaah. [Muslim/Ahmad] In another Hadeeth Rasoolullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam stated: «The attending of the Jumuah is incumbent upon every mature male». [Nisaai] There is Ijmaa’ (of the A’immah) on the fact that Jumuah is Fardh ‘Ain.» {Halbee Kabeer Pg. 547/8}

At another juncture he states: «Eid Salaah is Waajib upon the one on whom Jumuah is compulsory. Imaam Muhammad Rahimahullah states in his Al Jaamiul Sagheer: «Two Eids that co-exists on one day, the first one is Sunnah (meaning Waajib that is proven through the Sunnah/Hadeeth) and the second one is Fardh. Not one of them should be discarded.» {Ibid Pg. 565}

Moulana Yusuf Ludhianwi Rahimahullah states in his Aap ke Masaail Vol. 2 Pg. 414: «Eid Salaah is Waajib and Jumuah Salaah is Fardh Ain. How can one Waajib act take the place of a Fardh Ain? Further, the time for Eid Salaah is before Zawaal and Jumuah becomes Fardh after Zawaal. How can the Salaah that is performed before Zawaal take the place of Jumuah? It is for this reason that according to the Jamhoor A’immah Jumuah cannot displace/cancel the Jumuah Salaah. Imam Abu Haneefah, Imaam Maalik and Imaam Shaafi’ee Rahimahumullah are all in favour of this (i.e. Eid Salaah can not cancel the obligation of performing Jumu’ah Salaah on the day of Eid). The doubt that is created in the minds of people with regard to some narrations that Eid Salaah cancels the obligation of performing the Jumuah Salaah (actually) means that it is NOT with regard to townsfolk but in fact with regards to villagers (bedouins). In other words, those villagers that comes to the town/city for the performance of Eid Salaah if they wish to return to their villages before the Jumuah time then they may do so. They too shall perform Zuhr Sallah in the time of Zuhr in their homes. In fact there are some narrations that clearly makes mention of this point. However, there are some narrations that do not clarify this point but it shall be implied here too».

Mufti Abdur Raheem Lachpori Rahimahullah {Fataawaa Raheemiyyah Vol. 1 Pg. 273} states: «This is not correct that to perform one of the two (Eid or Jumuah Salaah) is sufficient. In fact, it is necessary to perform both Eid Salaah and Jumuah Salaah.

محمد عن يعقوب عن أبي حنيفة رضي الله عنهم عيدان اجتمعا في يوم واحد فالأول سنة و الآخر فريضة ولا يترك واحد منهما (الجامع الصغير ص 20 و الهداية ج 1 ص 151) طحطاوي على الدر المختار ج1 ص 558.

Yes, as far as Ghusl is concerned for Eid and Jumuah Salaah on the same day one Ghusl is sufficient. The following is stated in Khairul Fataawa: «One Ghusl is sufficient (Eid Salaah and Jumuah Salaah). One should not burden himself with Ghusl for each one of them. It is stated in Raddul Muhtaar (Vol. 1 Pg. 157): «One Ghusl is sufficient for Eid and Jumuah that coincides.» {Vol. 3 Pg. 67}

AND ALLAH TA’AALA KNOWS BEST
According to the Hanafi, Shaaf’ee and Maaliki Madhab, if Eid falls on a Friday, then the Eid Salaat and Khutbah will not suffice for Jummu’ah. The jurists have ruled that these are two different commandments and cannot be combined under any circumstance. (I’laaus Sunan vol.8 pg.92)

According to the Hambali Madhab, we have managed to trace a view of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hambal (RA) who says that the Eid Salaat will suffice for the Jummu’ah, hence, after the Eid Salaat, the next Salaat that a person will have to perform is the Asr Salaat on that Friday. (Tahtaawi pg.288). The Ahaadith that were mentioned by the Imaam are the very same ones which the Hambalis use to support their Madhab. Before answering these Ahaadith, we need to understand a few things which are of vital importance.

There are four authentic sources in Deen from which any Mas-ala (rule) must be established. These are Qur’aan, Hadith, Ijmaa (consensus) and Qiyaas (analogy). As long as a Mas-ala is established by anyone of these four sources, it will be considered to be part of our Deen. It is not necessary for a Mas-ala to be established only by Qur’aan and/or Hadith. The Qur’aan and Hadith mention guidelines and fundamental laws from which the expert jurists extract and derive various Masaail. It is not the work of any ordinary person to ‘glance’ at verses of the Qur’aan or Hadith and then draw up his own conclusions. This is the work of the experts. The four great Imaams had sound knowledge of every branch of Deen which made them qualify to extract different Masail after deep study and research into the Qur’aan and Hadith. It is, therefore, Waajib and compulsory for us to follow them in understanding our Deen. Similarly, a person is not allowed to follow his own desires by sometimes following one Imaam and at times another. It is Waajib to follow one Imaam in all his verdicts.

Now that we have understood the above, our subject matter is ‘will Eid Salaat suffice for Jummu’ah?’ We must understand that the obligation of Jummu’ah is explicitly mentioned and established by the Qur’aan, the strongest of all proofs is Qur’aan. One who denies any verse of the Qur’aan will become a Kaafir. On the other hand, the obligation of Eid Salaat is established through Hadith. Undoubtedly, the Hadith is a very strong proof, but of a lower degree than Qur’aan. One who denies something that is established through Hadith will not become a Kaafir. Keeping this in mind, even a person of little understanding will be able to come up to this simple conclusion that how can something that is proven from Hadith have so much of power and strength that it totally cancels something that is clearly and explicitly proven from the Qur’aan? How can the Eid Salaat abrogate the obligation of Jummu’ah?

Furthermore, there are a few Ahaadith (as mentioned by the Imaam) which outwardly show the permissibility of missing Jummu’ah when Eid falls on a Friday. These Ahaadith have slight variations but the gist of all is similar. As an example, to understand this Mas-ala properly we will look at one narration: Hadhrat Abu Hurayra (Radhiallaahu Anhu) reports that (on Friday, the day of Eid), Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) addressed all his companions saying, ‘Today, two Eids have gathered together (Eid and Jummu’ah). Whosoever from you wishes, then this Salaat (Eid) will suffice him for Jummu’ah. We will soon gather again if Allah wills.’ (Ibn Maajah pg.93)

Firstly, the Muhadditheen who are the esperts in the field of Hadith have mentioned that the authenticity of these narrations is disputed. However, even if we have to accept the authenticity of these narrations, then another answer is that during the time of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), people from outside the city of Madinah living in the farmlands and villages, used to come to Madinah and gather for the Eid Salaat. At this point, we have to remember that just as how Eid Salat is not Waajib on those living out of the city, on farms, villages, etc. similarly, Jummu’ah is also not Waajib on them. (Tahtaawi pg.288)

These bedouins and villagers who come to Madina came on their own will out of joy and happiness, being the day of Eid. The Eid Salaat, as we know, is performed a little after sunrise in the morning. It was, therefore, difficult for these villagers to stay behind in the city after performing the Eid Salaat and wait for Jummu’ah. This is what is being referred to in these narrations. Looking at all these narrations, with slight variations, one narrations says that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘Whomsoever wishes he may perform Jummu’ah Salaat and whosoever wishes he may return.’ Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) was addressing the bedouins and villagers here because, for them to stay behind till Jummu’ah was a long wait and would be difficult for them. Since Jummua’h was not Waajib on them, Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said to them that if they wished to return to their farmlands, they are at will to do so. The proof to say that this law was said only for the bedouins is that in the first narration of Abu Hurayra (Radhiallaahu Anhu), Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘We will soon gather again if Allah wills’, i.e. here Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) addressing the people of the city says to them that very soon we will be gathering for Jummu’ah. Therefore, the standard answer to all these narrations is that Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) did give permission to miss Jummu’ah if Eid falls on a Friday but this permission was only for the bedouins because Jummu’ah was not Waajib on them at all in the first place. In order to substantiate this even more further, we will look at another narration. Hadhrat Uthmaan (Radhiallaahu Anhu) in his time, once addressed the congregation after the Eid Salaat which also fell on a Friday. He said to them, ‘Whomsoever from amongst the villagers wishes to wait for Jummu’ah, then he may do so and whomsoever wishes to return then I have granted him permission.’ (Muwatta pg.165)

Look at this narration. It is clearer than broad daylight that this permission was only for the villagers. Furthermore, in this narration, Hadhrat Uthmaan made this statement in front of a large gathering of great Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum). If this permission was general and included the people of the city also, then the Sahaaba would have opposed and raised objections immediately against Hadhrat Uthmaan (Radhiallaahu Anhu) as to why was he granting special permission only for the Bedouins and not for the people of the city. In view of the above, and in brief, we will say that if we do accept these narrations to be authentic then too the permission to skip Jummu’ah and suffice on Eid Salaat was only for the villagers simply because Jummu’ah was not Waajib upon them.

and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Moulana Asad Haffejee
STUDENT: DARUL IFTA

CHECKED AND APPROVED CORRECT: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Head: Darul Ifta); Mufti Muhammad Kadwa (Fatwa Dept); Moulana Muhammad Haroon Abbassommar (Faculty of Specialty in Hadith)

Jami’yyatul Ulama Canada (CCMT)

OBLIGATION OF JUMUAH SALAH

«O ye who believe! When the call is heard for the prayer of the day of Jumuah (Friday), hasten unto remembrance of Allah and leave your trading. That is better for you if ye did but know.»
(Holy Quran: Surah 62: verse: 9)

«Let people give up neglect of the Friday prayer otherwise Almighty Allah will set the seal on their hearts, and then they will become of those that are negligent.»
(Saheeh Muslim and Nasaai)

«He who misses three Friday services (in succession) owing to heedlessness or indolence, Almighty Allah sets the seal on his heart.»
(Abu Dawud, Nasaai, Ibn Majah)

CITY DWELLERS MUST PERFORM JUMUAH SALAH ON EID DAY ALSO

As mentioned in the authentic ahadith, if Eid happens to fall on a Friday (Jumuah), the villagers and bedouins who come from out of town to attend the Eid prayer are exempted from performing the Friday prayer (Jumuah Salah) if they leave after the performance of the Eid prayer, but those residing in the city must still perform the Friday prayer as usual.

There are a few ahadith which outwardly show the general permissibility of missing Jumuah Salah when Eid falls on a Friday however they are interpreted by Muhadditheen, Fuqaha and Jurists in accordance to the meaning which is found in the explicit ahadith wherein permission was only granted to those who traveled from distant villages to attend the Eid prayer in the city. This can be clearly understood below:

Abu Ubaid (r.a) says: “I witnessed Eid with Sayyiduna Uthman bin Affan (r.a.). He prayed and then turned and gave a sermon, saying: ‘Verily, two Eids have occurred simultaneously for you today, so whoever from among the people of Aaliyah (villages above Najd until Tihamah, miles away from Madinah) wants to wait for the Friday prayer may wait and whoever wants to leave may leave, for I have given him permission.’”
(Saheeh Bukhari, Muwatta Imam Malik)

After quoting the above mentioned hadith, the author of Muwatta states, “Uthman only excused the people of Aaliyah (villages above Najd until Tihamah, miles away from Madinah) from performing the Friday prayer because they weren’t from the people of the city.”
(Muwatta Imam Muhammad)

Imam Shafe’ee (r.a.) says in his famous book Kitabul Umm: “If Eid falls on a Friday, the Imam prays Eid when the prayer becomes permissible and then gives permission for the non-city-dwellers who attend the Eid prayer to leave if they wish back to their homes and not return for the Friday prayer. It is preferable for them to remain until performing the Friday prayer or (if able) to return after leaving to perform the Friday prayer, although if they don’t, there is no harm, insha Allah. This (meaning leaving the Friday prayer) is not permissible for any of the city-dwellers without an excuse (that exempts them from the obligation of performing the Friday prayer).”
(Kitabul Umm of Imam Shafe’ee)

REASONS WHY EID SALAH WILL NOT SUFFICE FOR JUMUAH SALAH

Firstly: The obligation of Jumuah Salah is explicitly mentioned and established by the Holy Quran, the strongest of all proofs is the Holy Quran. One who denies any verse of the Holy Quran will become a disbeliever. On the other hand, the obligation of Eid Salah is established through Hadith. Undoubtedly, the Hadith is a very strong proof, but of a lower degree than the Holy Quran. One who denies something that is established through Hadith does not become a disbeliever. Keeping this in mind, even a person of little understanding will be able to come up to this conclusion that how can something that is proven from Hadith have so much of power and strength that it totally cancels something that is clearly and explicitly proven from the Holy Quran? How can the Eid Salah abrogate the obligation of Jumuah Salah? Jumuah Salah has been made fardh in the Holy Quran and we need a proof of a similar strength to cancel it. The ahadith under discussion cannot be used for that proof as the possibility of it being tied to a particular people is there. All the learned scholars have accepted the law that when there is a possibility (in the proof) then it no longer exists to be a proof.

Secondly: The Muhadditheen (professors of Hadith) who are the experts in the field of Hadith have mentioned that the authenticity of the narrations used by those who issue general permission for everyone (villagers & city dwellers) to skip Jumuah Salah is disputed. This is why Shaikh al-Kawthari (r.a.), the famous muhaddith, and others have skillfully shown how all these ahadith are either too weak to be used as evidence because of problems with the narrators or are interpreted in the light of the hadith related by Bukhari (mentioned above regarding Sayyiduna Uthman’s statement) meaning that if we do accept these narrations to be authentic then too the permission to skip Jumuah Salah and suffice on Eid Salah was only for the villagers simply because Jumuah Salah was not Wajib upon them (as they were from the villages or travelers/musafir).

Thirdly: Sayyiduna Uthman (r.a.) made this statement in front of a large gathering of great Sahaba (r.a). If this permission was general and included the people of the city also, then the Sahaba would have opposed and raised objections immediately against Sayyiduna Uthman (r.a.) as to why was he granting special permission only for the bedouins and not for the people of the city. Thus, we can conclusively say that this reasoning has the consensus of the Sahaba (r.a.) attached to it.

Fourthly: In his narration Abu Huraira (r.a.) reports that the holy Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘We will soon gather again if Allah wills’ (Ibn Majah), i.e. here the holy Prophet (pbuh) addressing the people of the city says to them that very soon we will be gathering for Jumuah Salah. Therefore, the standard answer to all the narrations is that the holy Prophet (pbuh) did give permission to miss Jumuah Salah if Eid falls on a Friday but this permission was only for the bedouins/villagers because Jumuah Salah was not Wajib on them at all in the first place. In order to substantiate this even further, we can once again refer to the narration wherein Sayyiduna Uthman (r.a.) in his time, once addressed the congregation after the Eid Salah which also fell on a Friday. He said to them, ‘Whomsoever from amongst the villagers wishes to wait for Jumuah, then he may do so and whomsoever wishes to return then I have granted him permission.’ (Saheeh Bukhari & Muwatta)

Fifthly: Salatul Eid is Wajib and Salatul Jumuah is Fardh, thus how can something wajib take the place of something fardh? Similarly, the permissible timing for Eid Salah is before Zawal (midday) whereas Jumuah Salah is only permissible after Zawal, thus, how is it possible that the prayer which is offered before Zawal take the place of the Jumuah prayer?

CONCLUSION

According to the Jamhoor (consensus of scholars, jurists and fuqaha) Salatul Jumuah will not be dropped by performing Eid Salah. This is also the view of Imam Malik, Imam Shafe’ee, Imam Abu Hanifah (r.a) and other great scholars of the ummah. As explained above, the narrations which indicate the permission to skip Jumuah Salah and suffice on Eid Salah was exclusively granted for the villagers. Even though travelers and villagers who come from out of town to attend the Eid prayer are exempted from performing the Friday prayer (Jumuah Salah), they must still offer the Salatul Zhuhr. And Allah knows best.

May Almighty Allah save us from following our desires and keep us steadfast on His genuine deen.
Mohammed Badat
www.masjidbilal.org